OECD-Fao Agricultural Outlook 2005-2014

Agricultural trade
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The majority of rapeseed oil is of EU origin Feedstock potential for advanced renewable fuels is very large, but production facilities at commercial scale are still limited. Land use and land use change.

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While the forest area, natural area and artificial area increased in the EU between and , grassland decreased. In , the ratio of grassland to agricultural land declined by 2. The loss of permanent grassland between and amounted to 3 Mha While a direct cau sal relationship between the loss of grassland area and an increase in the area of cropland used for the production of biofuels could not be found in the Union as a whole, it has been reported by one Member State Expansion of cropland at global level would occur at the expense of grassland Environment, economic and development issues.

No significant negative effects from the production of biofuels and bioliquids on biodiversity, water resources, water quality and soil quality were found in the EU However, indirect land use change can cause biodiversity losses if additional land expansion takes place in sensitive areas, such as forests and highly biodiverse grassland.

Concerning third countries, soil degradation could occur when biofuel expansion takes place on land which is not well-suited for agricultural use. Researc h shows that a number of EU biofuel feedstock trading partners e. Russia, Ukraine, Canada, Peru and Brazil have cropland areas characterized by low suitability for cropping irrespectively of the final use of crops , hence leading to soil impacts No impacts of biofuel production on the availability of water in the EU were reported.

In third countries, no evidence of direct linkages between biofuel production and water stress were identified in the biofuel exporting partners to the EU. Concerning food prices , i t should be noted that between and , prices of agriculture commodities decreased. In , the price of vegetable oils reached its lowest level since in USD 42 , while prices for oilseed based meals and cakes for feed increased.

Other factors include: high supply and stocks of grains, substitution of meals with cereals, and low crude oil prices. Regarding land use right , the most recent reports on large-scale land deals confirm the finding of the Commission progress report on renewable energy that only very small share of biofuel projects outside the EU have been developed with the EU market in mind.

2 Emergence of China and other economies

And many l and acquisition projects launched in early s failed and did not materialise in real biofuel production projects. Cl ear attribution of deals to biofuels is difficult as the agriculture crops may end up in the food chain depending on commodity prices at harvest time or other factors It should be also noted that, in order to address the concerns related to impacts on lo cal communities and land use rights in developing countries, the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO has adopted in the Guidelines on Responsible Governance of Tenure and in the Guidelines for Responsible Investments in Agriculture.

In develo ping countries, the multi-stakeholder EU sustainability certification schemes e. The promotion of renewable energy is an essential part of EU energy policy, as recognised in Article TFEU, and largely contributes to the implementation of the Energy Union Framework strategy. It aims at further Europeanising renewable energy policy and maximising its use in buildings, transport and industry sectors. The Commission has proposed reinforced provisions to set the conditions right for investments, including progressive cross-border opening of support, the principle of non-retroactivity and accelerated administrative procedures, as well consumers' empowerment.

Electricity, transport and heating and cooling sectors are all targeted with a number of concrete measures, while it is proposed to use national targets as baseline for Member States' further progress after In relation to bioenergy, the Commission has proposed to strengthen the EU sustainability framework for bioenergy by extending it to cover also biomass and biogas used for heat and power in large energy installations. However, estimates show that Member States will have to continue their efforts to reach their binding targets, as the trajectory becomes steeper.

This especially applies for France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, which will have to substantially increase their shares in in order to keep on track with their respective trajectories. However, some Member States such as Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom might have to reinforce cooperation with other Member States by using cooperati on mechanisms such as statistical transfers to timely reach their national binding targets.

Representing around half 49 of the final energy consumption at EU level, heating and cooling remains the largest sector in terms of energy consumption It is also the largest contributor to the renewable energy target, with half of the renewable energy consumption 51 , even if its growth rate has been slower than in the electricity sector.

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In , around The electricity sector has seen the fastest growth in renewable share, which currently reaches In , the largest contributor to renewable electricity remained h ydropower. The strongest performer in terms of growth is onshore wind. Solar photovoltaic development has been uneven, with a growth peak in and , but lower growth rates each year since. Transport is the sector which continues to show the slowest growth of renewables, with 0. Its renewable energy share was 5.

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This slow progress is due to various difficulties, including regulatory uncertainty and a late uptake of advanced biofuels. On administrative barriers, Member States have made progress on removing them, but this progress have not been uniform across the Union and there is still ample room for improvement, especially for automatically granting the permit after the administrative procedure's deadline and for establishing one-stop shops. On biofuel sustainability, the majority of biofuels consumed in the EU are produced within the Union from domestic feedstock.

No significant direct adverse effects on biodiversity, soil and water, food security nor on developing countries have been identified. However, risks of indirect land use change impacts remain of concern. Modelling analysis has found risks of indirect land use change ILUC resulting from food based biofuels. The outlook for Latin America has significantly deteriorated in recent months.

Economic growth: the rate of change of real GDP Sovereign rating index and outlook is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber.

The case study on Russian Federation and the U. Economic Outlook predicts trade growth of 4 between and ; and ii the shares.

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Three main components for greening could have an impact on the outlook. However, area growth may slow down over the outlook period, given pressures on feed prices and input use. Secondly, the use of sugar beet and molasses for biofuel is expected to increase in volume. Production increases to the theoretically feasible levels of million t wheat , 73 million t maize and 65 million t barley. Fostering inclusive growth: A golden opportunity to put future growth on a socially sustainable footing.

By the forecast of the Ministry of Finance export volume in. Imports coffee break in the seminar was seen as a way of invigorating and relaxing the. Nigeria is the largest economy in Africa and its GDP growth has been notable. United Kingdom. United States. Spare parts growth rate, —, USD million.

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For the first time, the Agricultural Outlook has been prepared jointly by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Food and. Perspectives agricoles de l'OCDE et de la FAO Agricultural Outlook offers an assessment of agricultural markets covering cereals, oilseeds, sugar.

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Market sizes from to , with forecast data through. The World Bank's Commodity Markets Outlook is published quarterly, in the rally in Arabica coffee prices and some other food items mostly meat. II Global Market Outlook. Soybean meals, coffee, soybeans, bananas and wine account for Table A Poultry meat market projections for the EU, - ' t cwe. Russia and Brazil experienced sharp contractions.

As a group, countries in Sub- Saharan Africa lost momentum after several years of. The text upon which the SCFCAH reached an agreement does not contain specific requirements for imports from third countries, but we expect that further steps will be taken to address this.

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When the standards of this Regulation are to apply on imports, it will possibly put extra expenses on U. Poultry Production and Exports. The meeting underlined the need for agriculture policy reform in order to fulfil the development dimension of the ongoing WTO negotiations.

To this end, the participants stressed the need for enhanced market access and reduced trade distortions due to export competition measures and non-tariff barriers. In order for developing countries to fully benefit from agricultural trade liberalization, well targeted technical assistance would be required, according to the participants.

The meeting also called for national and multilateral assistance mechanisms to compensate potential losers and ensure that all nations profit from the global welfare gains brought about by the liberalization process. Agricultural Outlook Broiler exports in April totaled million pounds, up 46 percent from last year.