Sources of Tibetan Tradition. Schaeffer , Matthew T. Kapstein , Gray Tuttle. The most comprehensive collection of Tibetan works in a Western language, this volume illuminates the complex historical, intellectual, and social development of Tibetan civilization from its earliest beginnings to the modern period. Including more than representative writings, Sources of Tibetan Tradition spans Tibet's vast geography and long history, presenting for the first time a diversity of works by religious and political leaders; scholastic philosophers and contemplative hermits; monks and nuns; poets and artists; and aristocrats and commoners.
The selected readings reflect the profound role of Buddhist sources in shaping Tibetan culture while illustrating other major areas of knowledge. Thematically varied, they address history and historiography; political and social theory; law; medicine; divination; rhetoric; aesthetic theory; narrative; travel and geography; folksong; and philosophical and religious learning, all in relation to the unique trajectories of Tibetan civil and scholarly discourse.
The editors begin each chapter with a survey of broader social and cultural contexts and introduce each translated text with a concise explanation. Concluding with writings that extend into the early twentieth century, this volume offers an expansive encounter with Tibet's exceptional intellectual heritage.
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Sources of Tibetan Tradition (Introduction to Asian Civilizations) [Kurtis Schaeffer, Matthew T. Kapstein, Gray Tuttle] on elocusopcraf.ga *FREE* shipping on. Editorial Reviews. Review A welcome addition and marks the maturation of Tibetan studies as a discipline. (Bulletin of SOAS) This volume is a great.
Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item History Sources Document Type: The most comprehensive collection of classic Tibetan works in any Western language. User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Tibet Region -- Intellectual life -- Sources. Tibet Region -- Social conditions -- Sources. China -- Tibet Region. Political expansion and the beginnings of Tibetan Buddhist culture seventh to tenth centuries.
Tibet in medieval Chinese, Islamic, and western sources. From empire to monastic principalities eleventh to twelfth centuries. The age of monastic and aristocratic hegemonies: The florescence of Tibetan culture thirteenth to sixteenth centuries. Elaborating the narratives of Tibetan antiquity ; Historians and historical documents of the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries ; Exploration of Buddhist doctrine ; Literary developments ; Writings on death and dying ; The growth of the arts and sciences.
The age of centralization:. It also allows the further development of mass tourism for domestic Chinese, particularly safari or adventure tourists.
A personal and moving introduction to Tibetan Buddhism, it is also a detailed guide to the search for liberation. Termas herald a fresh opportunity for the renewal of spiritual practice. This has influenced the societies of Korea and Japan as well. In Tibet, that would have meant ensuring Chinese markets for what rural Tibet does best, which is producing great surpluses of wool and dairy products. Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus. Main article: Chinese architecture. Trivia About Sources of Tibeta
Tour packages pitched at Chinese domestic tourists now promote Tibet as an unspoiled landscape, with stopovers in the arid herding districts of the north, the historic ruins of the depopulated far west, the slopes of Chomolangma Mt Everest , and the forest, flowers, wild rivers and gorges to the east.
A further official report stated that 61 different nature reserves and national parks would be created in the TAR, covering more than , square kilometers. August 25, In the last five years the Chinese government has accelerated implementation of policies to displace nomadic pastoralists from the vast Tibetan grasslands, a massive social engineering campaign that threatens to eviscerate a sustainable way of life uniquely adapted to the harsh landscape of the high plateau.
The Chinese authorities use a smokescreen of opaque terminology in order to convince that their land use policies are aimed at environmental conservation, climate change adaptation and mitigation. Removing nomadic pastoralists from the grasslands they have protected for centuries is framed in terms of environmental protection — although the opposite is the case.
There is a consensus globally that settling nomads runs counter to the latest evidence on lessening the impact of grasslands degradation, which points to the need for livestock mobility in ensuring the health of the rangelands and mitigating negative warming impacts. This means the removal of Tibetan nomads who have protected the landscape for centuries, risking the survival of pastoralism, livelihoods and Tibetan cultural identity across the plateau. National park status is imposed from the top-down, situating the state as the sole agency of control, and ignoring the concerns and expertise of local people.
It is not known if any negotiations will be possible over the implementation of these laws as the new national parks take shape. In recent years, serious concerns about this policy direction have been raised within the PRC, as well as internationally. More than research papers have been published in China documenting scientific findings that no longer confirm the dominant official narrative by the Chinese leadership. Professor Li Wenjun found that resettling large numbers of pastoralists into towns exacerbates poverty and worsens water scarcity.
In published studies, she has said that traditional grazing practices benefit the land. In some areas, the knowledge and values of nomads and rural communities is receiving recognition, even among some officials. According to recent reports, a team from the Chinese Academy of Sciences Chengdu Institute of Biology, led by Sun Geng, studied desertification of grasslands in Dzoege, eastern Tibet, and compared the effect to natural restoration, moderate grazing, and no grazing on the soil and vegetation.
They found moderate grazing helped accelerate restoration. In fact, excessive grazing is the most common reason given for desertification, both in China and the world. For businesspeople it is a way to profit. For herders it is a home. The herders should have self-confidence rather than worry that they are backwards and need to be removed. China seeks to frame these developments in such a way as to persuade international institutions and governments and to protect its strategic leverage over downstream nations.
Earlier this year China announced a major scientific survey of the Tibetan plateau, using drones and satellites to investigate the ecology of the entire area. The survey will be the most ambitious conducted, 40 years after the first one in the s, when technology was not as advanced. Xinhua, August 9, The developments of the new national parks, even the Mars simulation base, serve the purposes of the Chinese Party state now well underway to bring massive numbers of tourists to the plateau.
Tourism revenues grew by The International Campaign for Tibet has documented how tourism is also being used as a tool by the Chinese authorities to confront revivalist trends of Tibetan religious and cultural expression and contain monastic growth, for instance at the well-known Buddhist institutes of Larung Gar and Yachen Gar in eastern Tibet. Mass demolitions and expulsions at Larung Gar and Yachen Gar witnessed since July are part of an unfolding political strategy involving more aggressive measures in order to curb and manage the growing influence and number of monks and nuns at these important monastic centers of study and Buddhist ethics in eastern Tibet, the largest such institutes in the world.
Now, at the same time as undermining religious practice and teaching and stepping up intrusive security measures, the Chinese authorities are using this very interest in Tibetan Buddhism to attract domestic tourists, leading to fears of further diminishment of these monastic communities. The dramatic expansion of tourism in Tibet has attracted cadres and entrepreneurs to new luxury resorts offering massive conference halls, discreet luxury dining and shopping malls. It has also stimulated a real estate speculative boom in Lhasa since the coming of the railway  in that has led to a rapidly expanding new Chinese city across the river from the old Tibetan town, as well as other cities.
In Lhasa, the dramatic increase in tourism since the opening of the Golmud-Lhasa railway has been especially acute at historically important sites, such as the Potala Palace, the Jokhang Temple in the Barkhor area, and the Norbulingka. These sites also have a deeper significance to the Tibetan people because of their connection to the Dalai Lama and Tibet. The push to advance tourism has now changed the dynamic of investment, drawing more foreign companies and governments to enter the Tibetan economy.
In the same week as China voiced its complaints about a visit by the Dalai Lama to the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh in April , the state media announced the opening of the second largest airport terminal in Tibet at Nyingtri also known as Kongpo close to the Indian border. The rapid expansion of infrastructure so close to the border has raised alarm in India with implications for regional security being raised by commentators in India and South Asia.
Under Xi Jinping, domestic and external security concerns have risen to the top of the agenda and are the emphasis of the week-long Party Congress in Beijing. For Xi, the balance appears to have tipped decisively in favour of national security considerations. Economic development still remains a top concern for Xi, but it is increasingly defined in terms of ensuring social stability.
Another document monitored by the International Campaign for Tibet from the Sichuan Police College is indicative of the highly militaristic language used by the police and armed forces, with content high in political, inflammatory rhetoric consistent with the disproportionate response demonstrated by the authorities.
These new developments are believed by many both inside the PRC and internationally to be counter-productive and provocative, with fears that they are likely to heighten tensions and increase the risk of violence by escalating the repression and limiting the recourse mechanisms available to certain groups, thus pushing them towards violence. This is likely to result in further alienation among those marginalized by state policies, and this risks increasing the appeal of violent action as a means to achieve change.
Chen Quangguo, who may be rewarded with a promotion at the Party Congress, has developed a reputation as a pioneer of new methods for securing CCP control over Tibetans and Uyghurs. Ethnic minorities have long served the CCP in China. Based on the available data, we estimate that between and about 77 percent of applicants who either obtained or were close to obtaining a government job were Tibetan. While this share is lower than the overall Tibetan population share of The intrusive presence of Party cadres in villages and monasteries has been expanded in areas of eastern Tibet, following the ambitious deployment of a major village surveillance scheme since in the Tibet Autonomous Region.
Now that the grid management system is established across the Tibetan plateau, the Chinese authorities appear to have pulled back a more overt and visible security presence in some areas — such as troops in monasteries — with the awareness that forces can be deployed within minutes if any protest activity or dissent occurs. In the meantime the leadership is focused upon broader and deeper control measures, for instance in the religious sphere.
At the 18th Congress in , there were no Tibetans among this delegation. In some Tibetan areas, there has been a renewed focus on military recruitment linked to the 19th Party Congress. In Kardze Chinese: Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan, local Party and military leaders presided over a conference aimed at attracting new recruits to the military on August 2 According to the prefectural state media, Li Yong, Kardze military commander, was critical of local leadership for not making enough effort to recruit military trainees, implying also that too many individuals are leaving the military.
It is also an implicit acknowledgement that in the official sphere as well as in the wider society, many Tibetans remain loyal to the Dalai Lama and maintain their strong sense of identity as Tibetans.
The same article, translated into English by the International Campaign for Tibet, stated that the TAR had recruited a total of , Party members since the 18th Party Congress, including 18, new Party members in By the end of the TAR had a total of , Party members, accounting for This total clearly includes Chinese, as the report specifies that , Party members are ethnic minorities, while farmers and nomads account for , Party members. While the Chinese authorities are marketing Tibet as a tourist destination based on the spiritual attractions of its Buddhist culture and landscape, Beijing has tightened its control over Tibetan religious expression and practice.
The new regulations indicate a more aggressive approach by the CCP on matters of faith and religious practice.